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BHOS Referencing Quick Guide

What is referencing?

 Referencing is a system used in the academic community to indicate where ideas, theories, quotes, facts and any other evidence and information used to undertake an assignment, can be found.

Why do I need to reference my work?

· To avoid plagiarism, a form of academic theft.

· Referencing your work correctly ensures that you give appropriate credit to the sources and authors that you have used to complete your assignment.

 · Referencing the sources that you have used for your assignment demonstrates that you have undertaken wide-ranging research in order to create your work.

 · Referencing your work enables the reader to consult for themselves the same materials that you used.

What do I need to reference?

 All the information that you have used in your assignment will need to be acknowledged. It is essential to make a note of all the details of the sources that you use for your assignment as you go along. Examples in this guide are based on guidance in:

The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. 2nd Ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Citation Style

There are three major citation styles:

Chicago (or Turabian), used in many fields

MLA, used in the humanities

APA, used in social sciences, education, engineering, and business

Harvard, standard style used usually in Great Britain.

Compare these bibliographic citations for an article of mine:


Chicago                  Lipson, Charles. “Why Are Some International Agreements Informal?’’ International Organization 45 (Autumn 1991): 495–538.

APA                          Lipson, C. (1991). Why are some international agreements informal? International           Organization, 45, 495–538.

ACS                         Lipson, C. Int. Org. 1991, 45, 495.


Harvard Referencing Guide


Harvard Referencing Style


Type of Resources

Bibliography examples

Book, one author


Brick, J 2009, Academic culture: a student’s guide to studying at university, National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Sydney.

Book, two authors


Carter, R & McCarthy, M 2006, Cambridge grammar of English: a comprehensive guide, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
*retain order of authors given in the source

Book, three authors


Bretag, T, Crossman, J & Bordia, S 2010, Communication skills, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
*retain order of authors given in the source


Book, multiple authors


Czinkota, M, Ronkainen, I, Sutton-Brady, C & Beal, T 2008, International marketing, Cengage Learning Australia, South Melbourne.
*retain order of authors given in the source

Organization as author

Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics 2001, Aquaculture developments inAustralia: a review of key economic issues, ABARE, Canberra.

No author

A history of Greece 1994, Irwin, Sydney.


Book, edited


Jones, MD (ed) 1998, Management in Australia, Academic Press, London.

Multiple editors

A History of Greece 1994, Irwin, Sydney..

Book: translated work

Colorado, JA 2006, Economic theory in the Mexican context: recent developments on the ground,
trans. K Smith, Oxford University Press, Oxford

Chapter in edited Books

Milkman, R 1998, 'The new American workplace: High road or low road?' in P Thompson & C Warhurst, (eds), Workplaces of the future, pp. 22-34. Macmillan Press, London.


Drucker, P 2012, Managing the non-profit organization, Routledge, London. Available from: Ebook Library. [29 September 2015].

eBook: freely available online (with no place of publication)

de Grosbois, T 2015, Mass influence: the habits of the highly influential,  Wildfire Workshops. Available from: [27 January 2016].

Journal article, online

Jennings, P 1997, 'The performance and competitive advantage of small firms: a management perspective', International Small Business Journal, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 63-75. Available from: The University of Western Australia Australian Library Course Materials Online. [1 September 2004].

Journal article: print

Conley, TG & Galeson, DW 1998, 'Nativity and wealth in mid-nineteenth century cities', Journal of Economic History, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 468-493.

Journal article: electronic database

Liveris, A 2011, 'Ethics as a strategy', Leadership Excellence, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 17-18. Available from: ProQuest. [13 October 2015].

Journal article: online only journal (volume & issue number available)

Segon, M & Booth, C 2011, 'Bribery: what do Australian managers know and what do they do?', Journal of Business SystemsGovernance and Ethics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 15-29. Available from: [29 September 2015].

Journal article: online only journal (no volume or issue number available)

Bustamante, C 2014, 'Libraries welcome writers in residence', Library Journal.  Available from: -writers-in-residence/. [29 September 2014].

Newspaper: print

Devlin, M 2011, 'Keys found to success by the less privileged', The Australian, 16 November, p. 32.

Newspaper or magazine article, online

Reed, S 2015, 'Shift to lower-carbon energy is too slow, report warns', New York Times, 9 November. Available from: [10 November 2015].

Unpublished paper, thesis, or dissertation

Hos, JP 2005, Mechanochemically synthesized nanomaterials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell membranes, Ph.D. thesis, University of Western Australia.

Thesis: published

May, B 2007, A survey of radical velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud, PhD thesis, Canopus Publishing, University of Bristol.

 Lecture notes

Foster, T 2004, Balance sheets, lecture notes distributed in Financial Accounting 101. Available from:

Interview on Radio

Woodley, N 2014, The world today, radio program, ABC News, Sydney, 8 December.

PowerPoint Presentation

Smith, M 2015, Management 101, PowerPoint presentation, MGMT1234: Foundations of Management, The University of Western Australia. Available from: [20 October 2015].

Audiovisual and Music :DVD

Art Nation 2010, DVD recording, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney.

Television Program

Immigration nationthe secret life of us 2011, television program, SBS, Sydney, 28 January.

Web site

University Library 2016, University Library Home Page, 26 February 2016, The University of Western Australia. Available from: [31 March 2016].

Computer Software

Thompson Reuters 2014, EndNote X7.2.1, software program, Thompson Reuters, New York.


Colli, MG 2009, Bilbao_6 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, image. Available from: [13 October 2015]


Internet entrepreneur 2012, Wikiversity, wiki, 6 January 2016. Available from: https://en.wikiversity .org/wiki/Internet_entrepreneur. [2 February 2016].


UWA Library 2015, Special collections in the Reid Library, Facebook post, 14 April. Available from: [22 October 2015].


Gillard, J [JuliaGillard] 2014, 'Stella Young was a shining light for care and action on disabilities.  We mourn her passing and rededicate ourselves to her spirit. JG', Twitter post, 7 December. Available from: [22 October 2015].

You Tube

ED Talks 2013, Ken Robinson: how to escape education's death valley, YouTube video, 10 May. Available from: [22 October 2015].