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Closed Systems & Processes: First Law of Thermodynamics. Quasi-static processes. Reversible processes. Isothermal and isobaric processes. Adiabatic processes. T-V diagram.

Open Systems: Reciprocating and rotodynamic compressors. The sequence of processes, including valve operation, for a reciprocating compressor w/o clearance.

Throttling and Multi-Stage Compression: Second Law of Thermodynamics. The non-ideal gas J-T effect. The derivation of optimum pressure ratio per stage. The Kelvin-Planck and Clausius machines. The Carnot cycle. The heat engine or reverse heat engine cycle. The heat engine and reverse heat engine diagrams. The efficiency of a Carnot cycle in terms of reservoir temperatures. Heat transfer through a finite temperature difference. Heat transfer through an infinitesimal temperature difference.

Entropy and its relationship to energy quality. The concept of increasing entropy (decreasing quality) for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic processes. Entropy changes. Gibbs free energy. Maxwell equation for calculating the entropy change of any substance.

Chemical reactions: Chemical reaction equilibrium. Functions of a single reaction variable – the extent of reaction. Mass balance. The general criterion of chemical equilibrium in terms of the total Gibbs free energy of the reaction mixture. The pressure-dependence of the Gibbs free energy for a pure component. The total Gibbs free energy of a mixture (reaction mixture). The equilibrium condition and the equilibrium constant. Le Chatelier’s Principle and the determination of the equilibrium constant at different temperatures.